Dyspepsia

Summary
Dyspepsia refers to a group of symptoms manifested as epigastric pain or burning sensation, postprandial epigastric fullness and early satiation, which can be complicated by poor appetite, belching, nausea or vomiting 1.
Causes
Symptoms of dyspepsia are associated with gastrointestinal diseases and may also be caused by pancreatic, biliary or hepatic diseases. By etiology, dyspepsia can be classified into organic dyspepsia (OD) and functional dyspepsia (FD). Factors associated with onset of dyspepsia include: mental labor, work stress, poor sleep quality, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and irrational diets. Motility dysfunction is the primary basis for the onset of FD 1.
Symptions
Main symptoms of dyspepsia 2:
1.Postprandial fullness: unpleasant sensation of prolonged persistence of food in the stomach after a meal;
2.Early satiation: unpleasant feeling that the stomach is overfilled soon after starting to eat, out of proportion to the size of the meal being eaten, so that the meal cannot be finished;
3.Epigastric pain: subjective, intense, and unpleasant sensation in the epigastrium, which can lead patients to believe that tissue damage is occurring;
4.Epigastric burning: unpleasant subjective sensation of heat in the epigastrium.
Treatment
Treatment of dyspepsia is intended to rapidly alleviate symptoms, improve patients’ quality of life, eliminate predisposing factors, recover physiological functions and prevent recurrence.  Treatment of OD is mainly targeted for the primary disease. Strategies for the treatment of FD should be generally adjusted depending on potential pathophysiological abnormalities, and individualized therapeutic regimens should be designed. Lifestyle adaptation therapies are applicable in patients <40 years of age and without alarm signs or overt psychological and mental disorders. Prokinetic agents, acid-suppressive drugs and anti-acid agents, etc.  could be used for the treatment of dyspepsia 1.
 
1.  中华医教会消化病教分会胃肠动力教组. 中国消化出有良的诊治指北( 2007 除夜连) Chin J Gastroenterol, 2008, Vol.13, No.2.
2.  Talley N J, et al. Rome IV: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders – Disorders of Gut-Brain Interaction[M]. Raleigh, NC: The Rome Foundation, 2016.
CP-91370 Approved Date 20190606