Epilepsy

Summary
Epilepsy is a group of chronic brain diseases caused by a variety of causes, characterized by recurrent, paroxysmal and transient dysfunction of the central nervous system caused by excessive discharge of brain neurons. Epilepsy is the brain diseases, which cause an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by the neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition.1
Causes
The cause of most cases of epilepsy is unknown.2 Some cases occur as the result of brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, infections of the brain, and birth defects through a process known as epileptogenesis. Known genetic mutations are directly linked to a small proportion of cases.1,2
Symptions
Seizures are the main symptom of epilepsy. Symptoms differ from person to person and according to the type of seizure. Characteristics of seizures vary and depend on where in the brain the disturbance first starts, and how far it spreads. Temporary symptoms occur, such as loss of awareness or consciousness, and disturbances of movement, sensation (including vision, hearing and taste), mood, or other cognitive functions. 2
There are many types of generalized seizures: generalized tonic-clonic seizures, absence seizures, tonic seizures,clonic seizures,myoclonic seizures, atonic seizures, et al.1
Treatment
At present, the main goal of epilepsy treatment is to control seizures, but it should be clear that the ultimate goal of epilepsy treatment is not only to control seizures, but also to improve the quality of life of patients.1
Antiepileptic drug therapy is the most important and basic treatment for epilepsy , and is often the preferred treatment for epilepsy. Epilepsy patients after regular drug treatment, there are still 1/3 of patients with seizures can’t be completely controlled. In drug-resistant cases different management options may be looked at including a special diet, the implantation of a neurostimulator, or neurosurgery.1

 
1.  China epilepsy guideline in 2015.
2.  WHO report in 2019. http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/epileps
CP-89364 Approved date 2019-5-7